Health Disparities, Racism & Xenophobia

We, as Students Against COVID-19, recognize the need to be prepared to confront systemic racism and practice anti-racism within our daily lives, communities, and in our future careers as the next generation of public health experts, health care workers, teachers, policy-makers, advocates, and Americans.  

This pandemic has shown us that, in the words of Dr. David Williams, 


“The coronavirus did not create racial inequities in health. It has just uncovered and revealed them. These disparities have long existed in the U.S., and persist across leading causes of death, 

from the cradle to the grave.” 


Within this page are educational resources and ideas for how to take action against health disparities, racism, injustice, and police brutality so we can empower ourselves with knowledge to advocate for a more just, equitable, and healthy world. 

Articles & Websites about Health Disparities, Racism & Xenophobia

Infographic: COVID-19 Through an Asian-American Historical Perspective

Podcasts about Coronavirus, Racism, and Health Inequity

Organizations to Follow on Social Media

Anti-Racism Books to Read

Resources if You're Looking to Donate

How to Protest Safely

Next Steps: Ideas for How to Take Action

Please note: All sources provided below are publicly available on the internet, and were compiled by graduate students who found the information to be informative and helpful. Students Against COVID-19 is not affiliated with any of the below journals, websites, organizations or publishers. Students Against COVID-19 does not, in any way, endorse or financially support and/or receive any financial support any of the organizations below. 

Articles and Websites about

Health Disparities, Racism, & Xenophobia


Health Disparities (Governmental Definition)


June 8, 2020









Racial Health Disparities and Covid-19 — Caution and Context (Article)

Merlin Chowkwanyun, Ph.D., M.P.H., and Adolph L. Reed, Jr., Ph.D; The New England Journal of Medicine 

May 6, 2020







Ten Equity Implications of the Coronavirus COVID-19 Outbreak in the U.S. (Report)




A wider lens on the impact of COVID-19: An Interview with Dr. David R. Williams (Article)

Jill Petty, published by the W.K Kellogg Foundation

April 29, 2020


On the Frontlines at Work and at Home: The Disproportionate Economic Effects of the Coronavirus Pandemic on Women of Color (Article)

Jocelyn Frye, The Center for American Progress

April 23, 2020


Financial and health impacts of COVID-19 vary widely by race and ethnicity (Report)

Mark Hugo Lopez, Lee Raine, and Abby Budiman; Pew Research Center

May 5, 2020 


COVID-19 and Racial/Ethnic Disparities (Viewpoint)

Monica Webb Hooper, PhD; Anna María Nápoles, PhD, MPH; Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, MD; JAMA

May 11, 2020 


COVID-19 & Racial Justice (Policy briefs on variety of topics including voting access)




What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State? (Article)

Maria Godoy and Daniel Wood, NPR

May 30, 2020


Racial Data Transparency: States that have released breakdowns of Covid-19 data by race (Report)

John Hopkins University & Medicine

June 9, 2020


COVID-19 in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups (Report)


June 4, 2020


Reducing Stigma (Article)


March 30, 2020


Double Jeopardy: COVID-19 and Behavioral Health Disparities for Black and Latino Communities in the U.S (Article)









The coronavirus is infecting and killing black Americans at an alarmingly high rate (Article)

Reis Thebault, Andrew Ba Tran, and Vanessa Williams; The Washington Post

April 7, 2020


COVID-19 targets communities of color (Article)

Colleen Walsh, The Harvard Gazette

April 14,  2020


Why is coronavirus taking such a deadly toll on black Americans? (Press Release)

Oliver Laughland and Lauren Zanolli; The Guardian 

April 25, 2020


Why African American communities are being hit hard by COVID-19 (Article)

Marc Zarefsky, American Medical Association

May 13, 2020


Is COVID-19 Falling Harder on Black Prisoners? Officials Won’t Tell Us. (Article)

Maurice Chammah and Tom Meagher; The Marshall Project

May 28, 2020


Health Inequality Actually Is a “Black and White Issue”, Research Says (Article)

Jordyn Imhoff

June 3, 2020


How Racism Is Shaping the Coronavirus Pandemic (Article)

Isaac Chotiner; The New Yorker

June 9, 2020






Coronavirus: What attacks on Asians reveal about American identity (Article)

By Helier Cheung & Zhaoyin Feng & Boer Deng; BBC News

May 4, 2020


AMA warns against racism, xenophobia amid COVID-19 (Press Release)

American Medical Association 

May 4, 2020


Covid-19 Fueling Anti-Asian Racism and Xenophobia Worldwide: National Action Plans Needed to Counter Intolerance (Article)

Human Rights Watch

May 5, 2020


COVID-19 and the lessons of xenophobia (Article)

Shihoko Goto, The Japan Times

May 19, 2020


Reports of Anti-Asian Assaults, Harassment and Hate Crimes Rise as Coronavirus Spreads (Article)

Anti-Defamation League

May 27, 2020








The LGBTQ Community and COVID-19 (Issue Brief)

Human Rights Campaign Foundation



LGBTQ Funding Resources in the COVID-19 Response (Website)

Funders for LGBTQ Issues



LGBTQ People and COVID-19 (Website)

Ithaca College 



Implication of COVID-19 for LGBTQ Youth Mental Health and Suicide Prevention (Blog Post)

The Trevor Project

April 3, 2020


LGBTQ Finances Are At Risk Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic (Article)

David Rae, Forbes

April 20, 2020


COVID-19 Resources (Website)

The Center: The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center 



Differences in healthcare access, use and experiences within a community sample of racially diverse lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning emerging adults (Article)

Kathryn Macapagal, Ramona Bhatia, and George J. Greene, LGBT Health Journal (Vol. 3, No. 6)


Exploring the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of nurses and midwives of the healthcare needs of the LGBTQ population: An integrative review (Article)

Kate Stewart and Pauline O’Reilly, Nurse Education Today (Volume 53)

April 7, 2017


Healthcare Professionals Working with LGBTQ Patients (Article)

Abigail Mitchell, Megan Somers, Amelia Bauder, and Denecia Lewis (Journal of Advances in Medicine and  Medical Research, Volume 25, No. 12)

April 5, 2018







For Native Americans, COVID-19 is 'the worst of both worlds at the same time' (Article)

Liz Mineo, The Harvard Gazette

May 8, 2020


Why COVID-19 is decimating some Native American communities (Article)

Timothy M. Smith, American Medical Association

May 13, 2020


Why Native Americans took Covid-19 seriously: 'It's our reality' (Article)

Nina Lakhani, The Guardian

May 26, 2020


Covid-19 has a magnified impact on Indian country (Article)

Partnership with Native Americans



The federal government fiddles as Covid-19 ravages Native Americans (Article)

Elizabeth Warren and Deb Haaland, The Washington Post

May 26, 2020


Working with Native American communities to control the spread of COVID-19 in the southwestern US (Article)

Doctors Without Borders

June 16, 2020


The Top U.S. Coronavirus Hot Spots are All Indian Lands (Article)

Nicholas Kristof, The New York Times 

May 30, 2020


Native Americans in Philanthropy: Resource Center (Website with Resource Links)

Native Americans in Philanthropy






(Please note that under this heading are also articles that explore how the intersectionality of race and ethnicity affect health disparities)

Crowded housing and essential jobs: Why so many Latinos are getting coronavirus (Article)

Antonio Olivo, Marissa J. Lang, and John D. Harden, The Washington Post 

May 26, 2020


Salud Talks (Podcast) 

Production of Salud America!, Institute for Health Promotion Research at UT Health San Antonio

Weekly Episodes beginning August 21, 2019-June 4, 2020


Double Jeopardy: COVID-19 and behavioral health disparities for Black and Latino communities in the U.S. (Submitted by OBHE) (Report, Action & Resource List)

SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)



Chicago tackles COVID-19 disparities in hard-hit Black and Latino neighborhoods (Article)

Cheryl Corley, NPR

June 9, 2020


Hispanics more likely than Americans overall to see coronavirus as a major threat to health and finances (Article)

Jens Manual Krogstad, Ana Gonzalez-Barrera, and Mark Hugo Lopez, Pew Research Center

March 24, 2020


Coronavirus and Latino Health Equity (Website with educational content regarding health disparities & resources for: emotional support, paying rent/bills/other financial aid)

Salud America! 



For Latinos and Covid-19, doctors are seeing an 'alarming' disparity (Article)

Miriam Jordan and Richard A. Oppel Jr., The New York Times

May 9, 2020



The unbearable grief of Black mothers: Between Covid-19 and police brutality, the burden of grief is yet another risk to Black mothers’ health  (Article)

A. Rochaun Meadows-Fernandez, Vox

May 28, 2020


Police brutality is a public health crisis: Protesting during a pandemic is a risk. But so is the status quo of police violence. (Article)

Brian Resnick, Vox

June 1, 2020



Myths about physical racial differences were used to justify slavery — and are still believed by doctors today. (Article)

Linda Villarosa, The New York Times Magazine

August 14, 2019


Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: What are the Options? (Report)

Kaiser Family Foundation

October 20, 2008


America is Failing its Black Mothers (Article)

Amy Roeder, Magazine of the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health 

Winter 2019


Human Rights Campaign (Website with articles, donation, news and action steps to be an ally to the LGTBQ+ community)

What is health equity, what is health disparity?

How should data on health disparities on COVID-19 be analyzed and contextualized to avoid "perpetuat[ing] harmful myths and misunderstandings that actually undermine the goal of eleminating health inequities"? 

How do health disparities seen in COVID-19 illustrate pre-existing inequalities? What are the equity implications? 

How do coronavirus racial disparities vary by state?

Governmental Publications on COVID-19

& Health Disparities

Articles Focused on the Impact of COVID-19 on

Black & African Americans

(Systemic Anti-Black Racism)

Articles Focused on the Impact of COVID-19 & the LGBTQ+ Community 

(Heteronormative Discriminative Health Care)

Articles Focused on the Impact of COVID-19 on Indigenous Communities in the United States

Articles Focused on the Impact of COVID-19 on

Hispanic & Latinx Communities

Articles on COVID-19 & Police Brutality

Further Reading––Articles, Reports & Websites

Articles Focused on the Relationship of COVID-19 &

Anti-Asian Racism & Xenophobia

COVID-19 Through an

Asian American Historical Perspective 


Covid-19 Through an Asian American Historical Perspective (Website)

This website, created by Yooree Grace Chung (MS3, Emory University), Eileen Li (MS1, University of Washington), Angel Xiao (MS3, Emory University) and Francis Tseng, provides an overview of the “legislative, sociopolitical, and public health context underpinning the anti-Asian racism and xenophobia surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic.”  These students also created the infographic you see below, which is also posted on their website. 

COVID-19 & Xenophobia Infographic.jpg

Please note: Jungsoo Chang, Yooree Grace Chung, Eileen Li, and Angel Xiao gave permission for website & infographic to be published on this page.

Organizations to Follow on Social Media


Anti-Racism Resources (List of Articles, Movies, Books, Articles and Podcasts)

List compiled by: Sarah Sophie Flicker and Alyssa Klein

May 2020

Anti-Racism Books to Read


Screen Shot 2020-06-20 at 11.03.11

(Shared by @FireDrillFriday, Artwork credit to @Jane_Mound)

Anti-Racism Reading List by the Brookline Library

Resources if You’re Looking to Donate 


Charity Navigator: A List of  COVID-19 Top Nonprofits

Charity Navigator: A list of LGBTQ+ Pride Month Charities

The Strategist: 137 Ways to Donate in Support of Black Lives and Communities of Color


NOTE: Students Against COVID-19 are not affiliated with any of the listed groups, and do not endorse any group. The lists found were publicly available sources. Use your discretion and do your own independent research before donating to any groups. 

How to Protest Safely

How to Protest Safely (Website)


June 20, 2020


(Graphic by: Amnesty International)

Next Steps: Ideas for How to Take Action 


Justice in June

Each week, this Justice in June initiative challenges you to read, learn, and gradually spend more time how to be an ally. This link provides a calendar and schedule of readings, videos, podcasts, and action steps to support your journey to Black allyship. 


#BlackTransLivesMatter: Actions & Resources for Solidarity

This extensive Google document provides educational resources, links to places to donate, how violence against black trans women has been perpetuated by the state, and information about how black trans lives are affected by police violence, housing and economic stability, health care, sex partner violence, and more.


The Guide to Allyship–By Amélie Lamont

This webpage is designed to give a guide to the do’s and don’t of allyship, how to handle our mistakes, and how to be a true ally for Black and African Americans. 


Amnesty International: I am a Person Committed to Equity 

This guide from Amnesty International provides ways to fight racial inequality. There are different resources, information and guides based on the following statements: I care about how society shapes my race and how my race shapes my experience in society, I want to learn more about race and racism, and I believe we all must play a part in the solution.